Archive for the Science Category

A study shows how pests are moving north…

Posted in Research, Science, כתובים with tags , , on September 2, 2013 by Abel Covarrubias

cricket

Hundreds of crop pests are advancing away from the tropics at a rate of nearly two miles a year, research has shown.

The mostly likely explanation for the trend is said to be climate change as rising temperatures make new habitats more inviting.

Pest invasions driven by global warming have serious implications for agriculture and food security, according to scientists.

Already, between 10% and 16% of global crop production is lost to pests such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects and worms.

Losses caused by fungi and fungi-like micro-organisms alone amount to enough to feed 8.5% of the global population.

Agricultural pests are mainly spread by being carried on transported farm products. But the second most important factor in disseminating pests is weather.

To investigate the likely effect of climate change, British scientists studied data on the distribution of 612 crop pests collected over the past 50 years. They found an average shift towards the north and south poles of around 1.7 miles (2.7km) per year.

Pests whose traditional homes were warmer regions near the equator were branching out to new locations they would have previously found too cold.

Dan Bebber, from University of Exeter, who led the research published in the journal Nature Climate Change, said: “If crop pests continue to march polewards as the Earth warms, the combined effects of a growing world population and the increased loss of crops to pests will pose a serious threat to global food security.”

One example of a serious weather-sensitive pest was the mountain pine beetle, Denroctonus ponderosae. Warmer weather had driven the beetle northward to destroy large areas of pine forest in the US Pacific north-west.

Another was rice blast fungus, a devastating pest affecting more than 80 countries which was now attacking wheat. Considered a new disease, “wheat blast” is having a severe impact in Brazil and there are fears of it spreading further north to the US.

The scientists wrote: “Observed changes in pest distributions accord with observations of wild species, direct responses of pests to warming, and with expectations for expanding pest ranges under climate change.”

Co-author Professor Sarah Gurr, also from University of Exeter, said: “Renewed efforts are required to monitor the spread of crop pests and to control their movement from region to region if we are to halt the relentless destruction of crops across the world in the face of climate change.”

Underwater astonishments

Posted in Research, Science with tags , , on June 21, 2013 by Abel Covarrubias

David Gallo shows jaw-dropping footage of amazing sea creatures, including a color-shifting cuttlefish, a perfectly camouflaged octopus, and a Times Square’s worth of neon light displays from fish who live in the blackest depths of the ocean.

A pioneer in ocean exploration, David Gallo is an enthusiastic ambassador between the sea and those of us on dry land. He explains that “today we’ve only explored about 3 percent of what’s out there in the ocean. Already we’ve found the world’s highest mountains, the world’s deepest valleys, underwater lakes, underwater waterfalls … . There’s still 97 percent, and either that 97 percent is empty or just full of surprises.”

David Gallo works to push the bounds of oceanic discovery. Active in undersea exploration (sometimes in partnership with legendary Titanic-hunter Robert Ballard), he was one of the first oceanographers to use a combination of manned submersibles and robots to map the ocean world with unprecedented clarity and detail.

How to reduce poverty?

Posted in Philosophy, Science, Wisdom with tags , , , on June 20, 2013 by Abel Covarrubias

“Change comes slowly,” says architect Paul Pholeros. He should know; he has spent the last 30 years working on urban, rural, and remote architectural projects throughout his native Australia and beyond. In particular, he is focused on improving the living environments of the poor, understanding that environment plays a key and often overlooked role in health.

An architect himself, Pholeros met his two co-directors in the organization Healthabitat in 1985, when the three were challenged by Yami Lester, the director of a Aboriginal-controlled health service in the Anangu Pitjatjantjara Lands in northwest South Australia, to “stop people getting sick.” The findings from that project have guided their thinking ever since, as Pholeros and his partners work to improve sanitation, connect electricity, and provide washing and water facilities to indigenous communities. Above all, the teams focus on engaging these local communities to help themselves–and to pass on their skills to others. In this way, a virtuous circle of fighting poverty is born.

Since 2007, Healthabitat has expanded its work beyond Australia, working on similar projects in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. In 2011, the firm was awarded the international UN Habitat and Building and Social Housing Foundation’s World Habitat Award, and a Leadership in Sustainability prize from the Australian Institute of Architects. In 2012, Healthabitat was one of the six Australian representatives at the Venice International Architectural Biennale.

Stephen Hawking and the Israel Boycott

Posted in Physics, Science with tags , , on May 9, 2013 by Abel Covarrubias

Professor HawkingThere’s an old joke about the definition of chutzpa. A boy murders his parents and pleas to the judge: “Have pity on me – I’m an orphan!”

Sadly, that comic story can be applied this week to Stephen Hawking, the brilliant Cambridge physicist who announced he was pulling out of the “Facing Tomorrow” conference in Israel next month, “based on advice from Palestinian academics that he should respect the boycott” of Israel. For such a clever man, his recent actions are shockingly foolish and short-sighted.

Short-sighted because, given Israel’s central position in scientific and technological fields, to boycott the Jewish state would mean giving up on some of the most important advancements of recent years.

  • Stephen Hawking himself, who has suffered from motor neuron disease for most of his 71 years, communicates using a mechanical voice system run by the Intel Core i7 Processor developed by the Israeli division of Intel.
  • As a partical physicist, he is intimately involved in the most significant development in modern times: the discovery of the Higgs-Boson particle, found last year using Israel-developed particle detectors.
  • Last year, Hawking accepted a prestigious physics award worth $3 million – awarded by Yuri Milner, a major investor in Israeli high-tech.

Clearly, Prof. Hawking is not about to take out his Intel voice chip, return $3 million, and cease engaging in scientific debate. With so many areas of his life impacted and improved by Israeli dynamism, his refusal to visit the Jewish state comes across as a whole lotta chutzpa.

Double Standard

If Hawking wants to boycott a nation for perceived human rights outrages, he is targeting the wrong country.

In a week when the world’s newspapers were filled with gruesome descriptions of profound human rights violations, it’s ironic that Prof. Hawking would choose to target Israel for approbation:

  • Civil war is raging in Syria, with the Assad regime using chemical weapons against civilians
  • Nigeria is massacring Islamist opponents of the government
  • China is enforcing its brutal one-child policy through forced abortions
  • Saudi Arabia is executing political prisoners and homosexuals

Of course, Israel is not be above criticism, but to single it out for special treatment is to hold it to a biased double-standard that is required of no other country in the world. To single out Israel, a liberal democracy with an open press, transparent judiciary, universal suffrage, and enshrined equal rights for all – as a country not only to be criticized, but utterly avoided – is total chutzpa.

Dr. Hawking, whose academic research is world-class, must also realize the key to bettering the world lies in fostering communication, not in shutting it down. By turning his back on all of Israel, he’s sending a reactionary and hate-filled message at odds with the extensive academic collaboration that’s marked his entire career. Chutzpa!

Indeed, serious academics, such as Sari Nusseibeh, the Palestinian President of Al-Quds University, deplore academic boycotts. Dr. Nusseibeh has pioneered joint projects with Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Brandeis University near Boston.

Hawking’s cancellation was such an embarrassment to his employer, Cambridge University, that the school spokesman tried to claim it was due to “health reasons” and not as a boycott of Israel. The university was then forced to backtrack, after Hawking’s office made perfectly clear that the decision was due to the boycott.

Wrong Side of History

Amazingly, the conference that Hawking is boycotting is designed to promote the very sort of tolerant, open world for which he surely yearns.

Held under the auspices of Israeli President Shimon Peres, the annual Facing Tomorrow conference brings together a diverse group of 5,000 world leaders and intellectuals for discussions on an array of pressing world – including geopolitics, economics, environment and culture. Peres, a Nobel Prize laureate and Israel’s elder statesman, is using his considerable political capital to address some of the planet’s most pressing issues. To boycott this effort is not reasoned criticism but rather pure chutzpa – an attempt to destroy an Israeli initiative not on its merits, but simply because it originates in the Jewish state.

As a theoretical physicist, Hawking surely knows that his field was shaped by unsuccessful attempts to silence Jews in the past.

In the 1930s, Jewish scientists in Germany – including Albert Einstein – found themselves edged out of traditional academic fields and into burgeoning scientific areas such as particle physics. Einstein and Enrico Fermi (who left Europe to save his Jewish wife) came to the United States, and built much of the foundation of modern theoretical physics.

This latest boycott attempt to silence Jews has a long and infamous history. Hawking’s synergy with this movement to delegitimize the existence of the Jewish state is destined to prove on the wrong side of history.

Civilisation is making humanity less intelligent, study claims

Posted in Science on December 5, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

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The simplicity of modern life is making us more stupid, according to a scientific theory which claims humanity may have reached its intellectual and emotional peak as early as 4,000 BC.

Intelligence and the capacity for abstract thought evolved in our prehistoric ancestors living in Africa between 50,000 and 500,000 years ago, who relied on their wits to build shelters and hunt prey.

But in more civilised times where we no longer need to fight to survive, the selection process which favoured the smartest of our ancestors and weeded out the dullards is no longer in force.

Harmful mutations in our genes which reduce our “higher thinking” ability are therefore passed on through generations and allowed to accumulate, leading to a gradual dwindling of our intelligence as a species, a new study claims.

Prof Gerald Crabtree, a developmental biologist at Stanford University, explained in the Trends in Genetics journal that a mutation in any one of 2,000 to 5,000 particular genes could lower our intellectual and emotional ability.

Our development of intelligence genes “probably occurred in a world where every individual was exposed to nature’s raw selective mechanisms on a daily basis,” he said, but the same pressures do not apply today.

The development of agriculture thousands of years ago led to larger community life, and “the need for intelligence was reduced as we began to live in supportive societies that made up for lapses of judgment or failures of comprehension,” he said.

“A hunter-gatherer who did not correctly conceive a solution to providing food or shelter probably died, along with his or her progeny, whereas a modern Wall Street executive that made a similar conceptual mistake would receive a substantial bonus and be a more attractive mate. Clearly, extreme selection is a thing of the past.”

Based on the rate at which harmful mutations in our genes happen, and the particular susceptibility of those genes related to intellectual and emotional function, Prof Crabtree calculated that humans “reached a peak” 2,000 to 6,000 years ago.

“I would wager that if an average citizen from Athens of 1000 BC were to appear suddenly among us, he or she would be among the brightest and most intellectually alive of our colleagues and companions, with a good memory, a broad range of ideas, and a clear-sighted view of important issues,” he said.

Within 3,000 years from now it is likely that all humans will have undergone at least two further genetic mutations which lower their intellectual or emotional stability, but science will most likely have progressed so far that we will be able to solve the problem, he added.

“One does not need to imagine a day when we could no longer comprehend the problem, or counteract the slow decay in the genes underlying our intellectual fitness, or have visions of the world population docilely watching reruns on televisions they can no longer build.

“It is exceedingly unlikely that a few hundred years will make any difference for the rate of change that might be occurring.”

Prof Robin Dunbar, an anthropologist at Oxford University, said: “[Prof Crabtree] takes the line that our intelligence is designed to allow us to build houses and throw spears straighter at pigs in the bush, but that is not the real driver of brain size.

“In reality what has driven human and primate brain evolution is the complexity of our social world [and] that complex world is not going to go away. Doing things like deciding who to have as a mate or how best to rear your children will be with us forever.

“Personally I am not sure that in the forseeable future there is any reason to be panicking at all, the rate of evolution with things like this takes tens of thousands of years…no doubt the ingenuity of science will find solutions to these things if we do not blow ourselves up first.”

Daydreaming really is the key to solving complex problems

Posted in Science on December 5, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

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Doing simple tasks that allow us to daydream is key to solving trickier questions playing on our minds, scientists find.

Daydreaming really is the key to solving complex problems, a new study has found.

Some of the most important scientific breakthroughs ever made – by everyone from Einstein to Newton – came about as the geniuses behind them allowed their minds to wander.

Now research by modern day scientists has shown that mere mortals can also improve their problem-solving ability in the same way.

The study showed that people who returned to a difficult task after taking a break and doing an easy task boosted their performance by around 40 per cent.

But there was little or no improvement for people who did another demanding task during the break, used it to rest or did not have a break at all.

Scientists who carried out the study said the results indicate that doing simple tasks that allow us to daydream is key to solving trickier questions playing on our minds.

“Many influential scientific thinkers claim to have had their moments of inspiration while engaged in thoughts or activities not directly aimed at solving the problem they were trying to solve,” said lead author Benjamin Baird, of the University of California, Santa Barbara.

“This study demonstrated that taking a break involving an undemanding task improved performance on a classic creativity task far more than taking a break involving a demanding task, resting or taking no break.

“The findings arguably provide the most direct evidence to date that conditions that favour mind wandering also enhance creativity.”

The research, published in the journal Psychological Science, is likely to please school pupils and bored office workers who enjoy gazing out of the window but may not go down less well with teachers and bosses.

Einstein is believed to have begun his theory of relativity while he daydreamed about riding or running beside a sunbeam to the edge of the universe – after he was expelled from school for rebelling against rote learning.

Newton developed his theory of gravity after he happened to see an apple fall from a tree in his mother’s garden in Lincolnshire.

Further back the Greek philosopher Archimedes shouted ‘Eureka’ when he stepped into a bath and realised the relation between the rising water level and the volume of his body that was submerged.

The study involved 145 people aged between 19 and 32 who were given two minutes to list as many unusual uses as possible for everyday objects. They were then split into four groups with one of the groups not allowed any break from the task. The other three groups were each given a 12-minute break during which some carried out a demanding memory task, some enjoyed complete rest and some did an undemanding task.

Those who did the undemanding task were found to be daydreaming a lot about personal issues or past or future events as a result of its ease.

All participants were then asked to return to the task of listing unusual uses for ordinary objects. When considering new items all groups did the same. But when considering the same objects as earlier, daydreamers improved their performance by 40 per cent while the other groups performed the same as before.

The researchers said the improved performance was associated with “a higher level of mind wandering but not with a greater level of explicitly directed thoughts about the task.” They added that the “seemingly dysfunctional mental state” of daydreaming may “serve as a foundation for creative inspiration”.

The authors suggested that we may unconsciously process thoughts while concentrating on another task but said more research is needed to explain more fully how this happens.

Daydreaming really is the key to solving complex problems

Posted in Science on November 25, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

Daydreaming really is the key to solving complex problems.

Surfing upon life

Posted in Science with tags , on November 23, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

Water

“The mind is like the parachute, only it works when it opens”

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no “authorities”).

Spin more than one hypothesis – don’t simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it’s yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Posted in Science on July 26, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

Originally posted on Marvelous to Say, See, and Do:

Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal. 

Driving into Sete Cidades

Have I been living under an igneous rock? How had I never been to the Azores until last week? The facility of the whole thing was boggling. To think that one moment I could be cruising along the Boston harbor front and not 7 hours later plunging into a natural hot spring pool in a jungle in EUROPE…well that would just be asking too much of the universe. Turns out it’s not at all  an outlandish request, it’s entirely possible and even better than I had imagined. This paradise is readily accessible, dynamic and beautiful, cheap and cheerful, and what’s more, the people there speak the most intoxicating language in the world: a very shwishy European Portuguese.

Sete Cidades

A 4 hr and 20 minute direct and painless flight from Boston carried my adventurous friend Char and me to Ponta Delgada, capitol of…

View original 560 more words

Posted in Science on July 26, 2012 by Abel Covarrubias

Originally posted on Mahalarp:

20 พฤศจิกายน 2010

ตื่นแต่เช้า เดินทางออกไปดูใบไม้แดง สูดอากาศเย็นๆ กินลมชมวิวชมวัดที่ Nikko

ที่นี่เป็นแหล่งที่งดงาม มาเที่ยวได้ตลอดปี แต่ด้วยความเป็นตัวเรา น่าจะเหมาะกับช่วงใบไมเปลี่ยนสี และอากาศหนาวเย็นจับจิตแบบนี้เป็นที่สุดล่ะ :D

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